Tehran, the capital of Iran

Azadi tower in Tehran

The capital of Iran and major city in the province of Tehran is Tehran.

Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and it has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East, after Cairo, with a population of over 9 million in the city and about 16 million in the Greater Tehran metropolitan area.

In terms of metropolitan area population, it comes in at number 24 worldwide.

A portion of what is now Tehran was Rhages' territory during the Classical era.

Rhages was a significant Median city that was devastated during the mediaeval Arab, Turkic, and Mongol invasions.

The city of Ray in modern times has been incorporated into Greater Tehran's metropolitan area.

Because of its proximity to Iran's territories in the Caucasus, Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty first chose Tehran as the capital of Iran in 1786. However, Tehran was later cut off from Iran during the Russo-Iranian Wars in order to avoid the competing factions of the previous Iranian dynasties.

Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Persia after the capital was shifted multiple times during its history.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, Tehran has been the destination for massive migrations from all over Iran.

Large-scale demolition and rebuilding started in the 1920s.

The royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, and Niavaran, which housed the two final dynasties of the old Imperial State of Iran, are among the many historical sites in Tehran.

The Azadi Tower, which was constructed in 1971 by Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty to commemorate the 2,500th anniversary of the establishment of the Imperial State of Iran, the Milad Tower, which was finished in 2007 and is the sixth-tallest self-supporting tower in the world, and the Tabiat Bridge, which was finished in 2014, are some of Tehran's most well-known landmarks.

Although Tehran has a huge number of people from other ethnolinguistic groups that speak Persian, the bulk of the minorities have been Persianized and assimilate into the Persian culture, making up about 99% of the population.

Milad tower in Tehran

Imam Khomeini Airport, Mehrabad Airport, a central railway station, the Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, trolleybuses, and a substantial network of motorways are all available in Tehran.

Due of earthquakes and air pollution, plans to move Iran's capital from Tehran to another location have not yet been approved.

Tehran was ranked 203rd for quality of life in a 2016 assessment by consultancy Mercer among 230 cities around the world.

Tehran is one of the top ten destinations with the quickest growth, according to the Global Destinations Cities Index for 2016.

In order to commemorate the day in 1907 when Tehran became the nation's capital, the City Council proclaimed October 6 of that year as Tehran Day.

History

According to archaeological evidence from the ancient city of Ray, Tehran may have been inhabited for more than 8,000 years.

Tehran at night

Tehran is located in northwest Iran's historic Media region.

Part of modern-day Tehran was a suburb of the important Median metropolis of Rhages by the time of the Median Empire.

Rhages is referred to as the 12th sacred site established by Ohrmazd in the Avesta's Videvdat. Rhages is referenced in Old Persian inscriptions as a province.

Darius I dispatched additional troops to his father Hystaspes, who was quelling an insurrection in Parthia, from Rhages.

Despite modern historians' consensus that Zoroaster was born in Khorasan Province, several Middle Persian manuscripts attribute Zoroaster's birth to Rhages.

In Ferdowsi's hnme, an Iranian epic poem based on the ancient stories of Iran, Mount Damavand, the tallest peak in Iran, which is close to Tehran, is a significant site.

The epics refer to it as the home of the prototypical Keyumars, the location of King Manuchehr's birth, the location where King Fereydun bound the dragon fiend Adahk (Bivarasp), and the location of Arash's arrowshot.

Tehran and Milad tower

Pietro Della Valle, an early modern Italian traveller, spent the night at Tehran in 1618 and wrote about it in his memoirs as Teheran.

Thomas Herbert, an English traveller, entered Tehran in 1627 and referred to it as Tyrone.

According to Herbert, there are roughly 3,000 homes in the city.

Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty had a palace and a government building constructed in Tehran at the beginning of the 18th century; however, he later moved his government to Shiraz.

Finally, Tehran was chosen as the nation's capital by the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan in 1786.

The selection of Agha Mohammad Khan's capital was influenced by a similar desire to maintain control over both northern and southern Iran.

He was apprehensive of the influence of the local notables in these places because he was aware of the devotion of the residents of the former capitals Isfahan and Shiraz to the Safavid and Zand empires, respectively.

Therefore, he probably saw Tehran's lack of a significant urban structure as a godsend because it reduced the likelihood that notables and the general population would oppose his reign.

Azerbaijan and Iran's integrated northern and southern Caucasian regions, which weren't yet definitively lost as a result of the treaties of Golestan and Turkmenchay with the neighbouring Russian Empire but would be during the course of the 19th century, were another reason he had to stay near by.

Only 80,000 people still called the city home after 50 years of Qajar control.

The majority of Tehran's residents lived in the three main neighbourhoods of Udlajan, Chale-Meydan, and Sangelaj up to the 1870s, along with a walled citadel and a covered bazaar.

Tehran city

Traditional spatial organisation was stressed in Tehran's first development plan from 1855.

The second, completed in 1878 and overseen by Dar ol Fonun, comprised brand-new city walls that were shaped like a perfect octagon and covered an area of 19 square kilometres, emulating the Renaissance-era towns of Europe.

Tehran has grown more than fourfold to 19.79 square kilometres.

Geography

There are 22 municipal districts in the Tehran metropolis, each with its own administrative hub.

Twenty of Tehran County's 22 municipal districts are found in the Central District, whereas districts 1 and 20 are situated in Shemiranat and Ray counties, respectively.

The cities of Ray and Shemiran are frequently seen as being a part of Greater Tehran even though they are legally independent.

The wealthiest area of Tehran is in the north, which is where the Zafaraniyeh, Jordan, Elahiyeh, Pasdaran, Kamranieh, Ajodanieh, Farmanieh, Darrius, Niavaran, Jamaran, Aghdasieh, Mahmoodieh, Velenjak, Qeytarieh, Ozgol, and Ekhtiarieh districts are located.

Commercial centres are found further north, while government offices and headquarters are found near the city's centre.

Climate

Tehran's northern region enjoys a Mediterranean climate, whereas the rest of the city experiences a chilly semi-arid climate with scorching, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. With the imposing Alborz Mountains to its north and the country's central desert to its south, Tehran's climate is mostly determined by its geographic location.

In general, the seasons of spring and fall are pleasant, summer is hot and dry, and winter is chilly and damp.

Tehran's mountains

Given the size of the city and the substantial variances in height across its numerous districts, Tehran's steep north frequently experiences lower temperatures than the city's flat south.

For instance, the 17.3 kilometre Valiasr Street connects Tajrish Square in the north to Tehran's railway station in the south, both of which are located at an elevation of 1,117 metres above sea level.

However, towards the end of Velenjak in northern Tehran, the elevation can possibly increase to 2,000 m.

The air in the northern parts of the city is 2 to 3 degrees Celsius cooler than the air in the southern parts of the city thanks to the sparse texture, the presence of old gardens, orchards, and green spaces along the highways, and the absence of industrial activities in the northern parts of the city.

In February 2005, the city was completely covered in snow.

In the southern and northern parts of the city, respectively, there was 15 cm and 100 cm of snow depth.

The worst weather in 34 years, according to one newspaper, was experienced this year.

To keep the key routes open, 13,000 municipal employees and 10,000 bulldozers were used.

The city was blanketed in a thick layer of snow and ice on January 5 and 6, 2008, and the Council of Ministers was forced to formally proclaim a state of emergency and shut down the capital from January 6 through January 7.

Tehran had severe snowfall on February 3, 2014, with 2 metres of snowfall in the city's northern regions (6.6 ft).

Roads became impassable in certain regions after a week of continuous snowfalls, with temperatures ranging from -8 °C (18 °F) to -3 °C (16 °F).

A violent thunderstorm with strong microbursts that caused a haboob on June 3, 2014, covered the city in sand and dust, killed five people, and injured more than 57 others.

Several trees and power cables were also destroyed by this incident.

By the time it hit between 5:00 and 6:00 p.m., temperatures had dropped from 33 °C (91 °F) to 19 °C (66 °F) in just one hour.

Wind gusts that reached over 118 km/h accompanied the sharp drop in temperature.

Religion

mosques in Tehran

Iran's religion and a list of Tehran's temples

Since the Safavid conversion in the 16th century, the majority of the population of Tehran is Twelver Shia Muslim, which is also the official religion of the city.

Other religious communities in the city include those who practice Judaism, Zoroastrianism, the Bahá' Faith, numerous Christian denominations, Sunni and Mystic branches of Islam, and many Christian denominations.

The city is home to a large number of religious buildings, both new and old, including mosques, churches, synagogues, and Zoroastrian fire temples.

The city also has a tiny third-generation Indian Sikh community, and the Indian Prime Minister visited the area's gurdwara in 2012.

Tourism

Tehran's tourism industry, in brief

One of Iran's most popular tourist destinations, Tehran, is home to a wide variety of cultural landmarks.

The Golestan, Saadabad, and Niavaran royal complexes, which were constructed during the rule of the nation's final two kingdoms, are located there.

Tehran is home to a number of historical, artistic, and scientific museums, such as the National Museum.

Museum Malek

Ferdows Garden's Cinema Museum

Abgineh Memorial

Carpet Museum of the Qasr Prison

Museum of Reverse Glass Painting

Museum of Safir Office Equipment

Milad tower close up

Famous artists like Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, and Andy Warhol also have works on display at the Museum of Contemporary Art.

The National Jewelry Museum in Tehran also features the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, one of the largest jewelry collections in the world.

Tehran hosts a variety of trade and cultural exhibitions, which are primarily run by the nation's International Exhibitions Company.

The annual International Book Fair in Tehran is regarded by the global publishing community as one of the most significant publishing occasions in Asia.

Infrastructure

roads and highways

List of Tehran's expressways is also available.

Politically, the country transitioned from a constitutional monarchy to an Islamic republic with the Islamic Revolution of 1979.

So that new types of political power decision-making centers could arise in Iran, the country's political power structure had to be altered.

These new political power centers in Iran renamed streets and public spaces around the nation, particularly in Tehran, as a result of their motivations, aspirations, and deeds. For instance, Pahlavi Street became Valiasr Street, and Shahyad Square became Azadi Square.

The capital city of Tehran has an extensive network of motorways and interchanges.

Several streets in Tehran are named after notable individuals from around the world, such as: Henri Corbin Street, central Tehran.

Tehran's streets

Simon Bolivar Boulevard, northwest of Tehran Edward Browne Street, close to the University of Tehran Gandhi Street, north of Tehran Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway, west of Tehran Iqbal Lahori Street, east of Tehran Patrice Lumumba Street, north of Tehran Nelson Mandela Boulevard, west of the British Embassy Vehicles.

The head of the Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office claims that although the city was intended to accommodate about 300,000 cars, there are currently more than five million vehicles on the roads.

Despite the recent growth of the automotive industry, international restrictions can have an impact on production methods.

More than 200,000 cabs are reportedly on Tehran's roadways every day, and the city offers a variety of taxi kinds.

Comparing airport taxis to conventional green and yellow cabs in the city, airport taxis are more expensive per kilometer.

Buses

Since the 1920s, buses have been a part of the city.

Conventional buses, trolleybuses, and bus rapid transit are all part of Tehran's transportation network (BRT).

The South Terminal, the East Terminal, the West Terminal, and the northcentral Beyhaghi Terminal are the city's four principal bus terminals.

65 articulated trolleybuses made by the Czech company koda were used to launch the trolleybus system in 1992.

In Iran, this was the country's first trolleybus system.

In 2005, there were five trolleybus lines that all departed from Imam Hossein Square.

Two northeast-bound routes operate mostly in a segregated busway in the middle of Damavand Street, stopping only at specially constructed stops spaced roughly every 500 meters along the routes, thereby converting these routes to trolleybus-BRT (but they are not called such).

The three other trolley bus routes operate in mixed traffic and head south.

another view of Azadi tower

Limited-stop and local (making all stops) services are available for both sections of the route.

In March 2010, a 3.2-kilometer extension from Shoosh Square to Rah Ahan Square became operational.

In 2008, Tehran's BRT system received its formal opening. It has 10 lines and 215 stations spread out over the city.

The BRT system has a network of 100 kilometers (62 miles) as of 2011, and it carried 1.8 million people per day.

Bicycle

Tehran's BDOOD stationn

ran has a dockless bike sharing startup called BDOOD.

It is accessible in Tehran's central and northwest areas and was founded in 2017.

Future goals for the company include citywide expansion.

The first stage of the application only covers Tehran's flat terrain, making it useless in inclement weather.

Bicycles are available for use by riders around-the-clock at 29 parking lots on Enqelab Avenue, Keshavarz Boulevard, Beheshti Street, and Motahhari Avenue.

a train and a subway

train and a subway in Tehran

also see Tehran and Iranian Railways Metro

Meydan-e San'at Metro Station, Tehran's railroad station

A Tehran-Europe train line is also operating, and the capital city of Tehran has a major railway station that connects services all the time to numerous towns throughout the nation.

The conceptual planning and feasibility assessment for Tehran's subway system were initiated in the 1970s.

In 2001, the first two of the eight planned metro lines were inaugurated.

Airport

Iran Airlines is another option.

Imam Khomeini Airport entrance in 2018.

Imam Khomeini and Mehrabad International Airports serve Tehran. Domestic and charter flights are primarily operated out of Mehrabad Airport, a historic airport in western Tehran that also serves as a military facility.

The primary international flights land at Imam Khomeini Airport, which is situated 50 kilometers (31 miles) south of the city.

green areas and parks

A list of parks in Tehran is also available.

March 2008, City Park

Nighttime at Water and Fire Park, February 2010

Tehran's city contains more than 2,100 parks, with Jamshidie Park being one of the oldest.

Jamshidie Park was first built as a private garden for the Qajar prince Jamshid Davallu and later dedicated to the final Iranian empress, Farah Pahlavi. Tehran has more than 12,600 hectares of total green space, or more than 20% of the total area of the city.

The preservation of the urban nature that exists in the city is the responsibility of the Parks and Green Spaces Organization of Tehran, which was founded in 1960.

The largest bird park in Iran is located near Tehran.

Along the Tehran-Karaj Expressway is a zoo that is home to over 290 different animals and spans over five hectares.

air port in tehran

The Ab-o-Atash Park ("Water and Fire park") was established in 2009.

The open water fountain area for cooling down in the hot weather, fire towers, and an amphitheater are its key features.

Energy

also see Iran's energy sector

Water

Tehran Province's freshwater resources in 2017

(37%) Groundwater

Treatment of sewage (63%)

also see Iran's sanitation and water systems

Greater Tehran, which has a population of more than 13 million, receives surface water from the Lar dam on the Lar River in the city's northeast, the Latin dam on the Jajrood River in the north, the Karaj River in the northwest, as well as groundwater in the area.

Solar Power

Masoumeh Ebtekar, the director of the Department of Environment, announced that solar panels had been put at Tehran's Pardisan Park for the generation of green electricity.

The government intends to encourage green technology to raise the nominal capacity of power plants from 74 gigawatts to over 120 gigawatts by the end of 2025, as stated in the national energy roadmap.

Education See also: Iran's Education Iranian Science and a list of Tehran-based institutions and universities
The largest and most significant educational hub in Iran is Tehran.

Greater Tehran is home to close to 50 prestigious colleges and universities.

Tehran has accumulated a significant number of higher education institutions since Dar ol Fonun was established under Amir Kabir's directive in the middle of the 19th century.

Some of these organizations have been essential to how Iranian political events have developed.

One of the founding fathers of the American College of Tehran, one of the first modern high schools in the Middle East, and the man whose name Jordan Avenue in Tehran bears, was Samuel M. Jordan.

The most prestigious Tehran-based universities include Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), University of Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, and Tehran University of Technology.

Tehran University of Art, Allameh Tabatabaei University, K. N.

Toosi the University of Technology, Shahid Beheshti University (Melli University), Kharazmi University, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Iran's Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Shahid University, and Tarbiat Modarres University are some of the other notable institutions of higher learning The Sharif University of Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, and Iran University of Science and Technology, all of which are located in Tehran, are renowned both nationally and internationally for producing competent undergraduate students and for accepting the best undergraduate Engineering and Science students.

Most graduates in this country are likely to pursue higher education abroad.

The biggest military academy in Iran, as well as a number of religious colleges and seminaries, are all located in Tehran.

Iran's architectural style

The Qajar and Pahlavi eras are represented by Tehran's oldest still-standing architectural landmarks.

The Toqrol Tower in Ray, Rashkan Castle from the Parthian Empire, whose treasures are kept at the National Museum, and the Bahram fire temple from the Sassanian Empire are only a few of the Seljuk-era structures that still stand in Greater Tehran.

Iran's architectural style

A minor town until the late 18th century, Tehran started to play a bigger part in Iranian society once it was chosen as the nation's capital.

Despite the frequent earthquakes that occurred during and after the Qajar dynasty, some historical structures are still standing.

Tehran, the capital of Iran, is regarded as having the most up-to-date infrastructure in the nation.

However, concerns have been raised about the gentrification of historic areas and the destruction of structures with cultural significance.

Square in Hasanabad

A perspective of the Tehran City Theater's structure

The National Garden Cossack House, the Courthouse of Tehran Police House, and the National Garden Qeytarie skyline in February 2010

Tehran was once a low-rise city because of seismic activity in the area, but in recent years, new high-rise projects have been constructed there to accommodate the city's expanding population. Since 1830, Tehran hasn't had any significant earthquakes.

Tehran's buildings

Iran's tallest skyscraper is the Tehran International Tower.

It is situated in Yusef Abad's northern area and has 54 stories.

The Azadi Tower, a monument constructed under the Pahlavi period, has long been regarded as Tehran's most recognizable landmark.

It was initially built to mark the 2,500th anniversary of the Imperial State of Iran's founding, and it blends post-classical Iranian design with aspects of Achaemenid and Sassanid architecture.

The other well-known landmark tower in the city is the Milad Tower, which is the sixth-tallest tower and the 24th-tallest freestanding building in the entire globe.

The Tabiat Bridge, designed by Leila Araghian, is the biggest pedestrian overpass in Tehran and is regarded as a landmark.

It was finished in 2014.

Theater

Tehran's Roudaki Hall

The royal theater of Tekye Dowlat, which was in Tehran during the Qajar era and was situated southeast of the Golestan Palace, was where traditional and religious performances were held.

Following Reza Shah's reforms, it was eventually destroyed and changed into a bank building in 1947.

Before the 1979 Revolution, the Roudaki Hall in Tehran, which was built to serve as the country's opera and ballet stage, had established itself as the most renowned performing venue for well-known foreign performers and troupes in the Middle East.

The hall, which bears the name of eminent Persian poet Rudaki, was officially opened in October 1967.

Tehran Opera Orchestra, Iranian National Ballet Company, and Tehran Symphony Orchestra all call it home.

One of Iran's largest theater complexes, the City Theater of Tehran, which has a number of performance venues, was established in 1972.

It was planned by architect Ali Sardar Afkhami, built under the direction and leadership of empress Farah Pahlavi, and completed in less than five

years.

theater in Tehran

Tehran is the location of the yearly Fajr Theater Festival and Tehran Puppet Theater Festival.

Cinema

Azadi Film Center

Iran's Cinema Museum is located in Ferdows Garden.

In Tehran, Mirza Ebrahim Khan opened the city's first cinema theater in 1904.

There were 15 theaters in Tehran Province and 11 in other provinces up till the early 1930s.

The majority of the cinema theaters in Tehran today are found in the city center. Among the most well-liked movie theater complexes in Tehran are those of Kourosh Cinema, Mellat Gallery and Cineplex, Azadi Cinema, and Cinema Farhang.

The Fajr Film Festival, Children and Youth Film Festival, House of Cinema Festival, Mobile Film and Photo Festival, Nahal Festival, Roshd Film Festival, Tehran Animation Festival, Tehran Short Film Festival, and Urban Film Festival are just a few of the film festivals that take place in Tehran.

Concerts Tehran has a wide range of concert venues.

This year, more than 500 concerts will be held at five different locations under the auspices of an organization like the Roudaki Culture and Art Foundation.

The top five locations in Tehran for classical, pop, traditional, rock, or solo concerts include Vahdat Hall, Roudaki Hall, Hafez Hall, and Azadi Theater.

The largest ski resort in Iran, Sports Dizin, is close to Tehran.

also see Persian sports

Persian sports

The most popular sports in the city are football and volleyball, but wrestling, basketball, and futsal are also significant components of the city's sporting culture.

Within one to three hours of Tehran, Iran has 12 ski resorts, with Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak being the most well-known.

With a peak elevation of more than 3,730 meters (12,240 feet) above sea level, Tochal's resort is the fifth-highest ski resort in the world.

It is also the closest ski area to a capital city in the entire world. Before the 1979 Revolution, in 1976, the resort first opened its doors.

A massive vertical distance is covered by a gondola lift that is fitted and is 8 kilometers (5 miles) long.

Tochal has two parallel chair ski lifts that soar to a height of 3,900 meters (12,800 feet) close to the mountain's peak (4,000 m/13,000 ft), surpassing the seventh station of the gondola and any ski resort in Europe.

Views of the Alborz range, including Mount Damavand, a dormant volcano that rises 5,610 meters (18,406 feet) above sea level, may be seen from the Tochal top.

The Azadi Stadium is West Asia's biggest football stadium.

Azadi Stadium

The national stadium of Azadi, the largest stadium in terms of capacity in West Asia, is located in Tehran, where many of the major matches of the Iranian Premier League are played.

The stadium is a component of the Azadi Sport Complex, which was initially constructed to serve as the venue for the 7th Asian Games in September 1974.

The Asian Games were held in West Asia for the first time at this time.

The largest contingent of competitors since the Games' beginning, 3,010 athletes from 25 nations and NOCs competed in Tehran.

The first West Asian Games were held in November 1997, which came after the staging of the sixth AFC Asian Cup in June 1976.

The West Asian Games Federation (WAGF), which was established as a result of the games' success, plans to stage them every two years.

The 1968 AFC Asian Cup final had also taken place in the city. Tehran has also played host to a number of FIVB Volleyball World League training sessions.

a football team

Iran Club, Tehran's first football team, was established in 1920 but disbanded two years later in 1923.

Rah Ahan, which was established in 1937, is currently Tehran's oldest football team still in operation.

The Tehran Derby pits Persepolis and Esteghlal, two of the biggest clubs in Asia and the largest clubs in the city, against one another.

The popular Armenian football team F.C. Ararat Tehran, which plays at the Ararat Stadium, is also situated in Tehran.

conclusion

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