Everything about Persepolis in Shiraz
More expansive than any other empire in history, the great Achaemenid Empire's monarchy eventually stretched from the amazing Indus Valley on the east to the life-giving Nile River on the west, including about half of the known world's cultures.
The monarchs possessed intelligence, kindness, righteousness, sovereignty, and courtesies. Persepolis is the largest and most important of the Achaemenid Empire's six capital cities, proving that this region needed more than one to function properly as a whole.
Since the great Achaemenid Empire was larger than any other empire in history, it required a good framework to manage such a wide area.
The largest and most significant of the six capitals of this empire is Persepolis, which is ruled by kings who are brilliant, kindhearted, virtuous, obedient, and polite.
Therefore, the Achaemenid Empire is a true assemblage of cultures, known to over half of the world, from the amazing Indus Valley in the east to the life-giving Nile River in the west.
You'll be shocked to learn how recalling an empire, especially one that is destroyed, may arouse admiration in you. Let's take a deeper look at the second Iranian site to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The first thing you should know about Persepolis is that it is known as "Takhte Jamshid" in Iran, which translates to "Jamshid's Throne." Although this is not the correct name, Iranians frequently use it as such.
The name "Persepolis" refers to a location where Pars people reside. Other names like Sad Sotun (100 pillars) or Chehel Menar may also be used (40 minarets).
This historic palace is situated 57 kilometers from Shiraz and 10 kilometers from Marvdasht's northern region.
This structure is even more imperial because it was actually constructed on a hill called Rahmat. Persepolis is comparable to Acropolis in length, but it is 4 to 5 times wider, giving it an area of about 125000 square meters.
Persepolis appears to have been a large ceremonial complex, especially for international affairs, though its exact purpose is unknown.
Persepolis was first built in 518 BC, or over 2500 years ago. The third Achaemenid monarch, Darius I, gave the order to build a substantial palace in the highlands near Marvdasht.
However, it took a while for the houses and statues of Persepolis to be built, and work on them continued even during the reign of following kings.
One of the Achaemenid rulers ordered the construction of every palace in the vicinity of Persepolis.
The majesty and elegance of the Persepolis buildings continue to astound architects and engineers to the point where it is difficult to construct such a big collection today, despite the abundance of opportunities.
The Achaemenid inscriptions that have survived in various locations state that Darius constructed this structure as a representation of advanced ancient Iran.
Building palaces and mansions required men to dig up mountains and pave foothills for a number of years.
Stone, which was employed in various resistances, served as the primary building material for palaces.
One of the most fascinating aspects of building palaces that grabs the attention of contemporary engineers, architects, and designers is carving and polishing stones into enormous pieces and transporting them to heights.
Persepolis palaces were created and finished up until the end of the Achaemenid era, but many of its components were constructed and embellished during the reigns of Darius I, Xerxes, and Ardashir I.
The lavish palaces of Persepolis, which the Achaemenid kings lived in for a long time, are still regarded as one of the most notable and enduring historical records of ancient Iran.
Darius I made a very wise choice when he chose the mountains that surround Marvdasht, taking into account their position in relation to the dawn and sunset, the surrounding plains' lushness, and their proximity to the royal route.
This region has undergone numerous repairs recently because Persepolis' buildings have sustained significant damage.
The American Archaeological Group was in charge of Persepolis' rebuilding in 1930. The palace of Queen Xerxes was identified because the inscription of Xerxes was found during the excavation.
Apadana Palace's palaces and columns were strengthened and parts of the inscriptions were rebuilt a few years later, in 1935, by a German team.
Up until 1940, the area was under reconstruction, which resulted in the discovery of numerous artworks and inscriptions.
Unfortunately, many of these works have also been removed from Iran and are now housed in museums and libraries in Europe and the United States.
Many of these works are stored in the Persepolis Museum, while some of the newly discovered pieces are kept in the National Museum of Iran.
The Persepolis region and its archaeological sites have recently been subject to further protection measures, and various portions of the region are presently being rebuilt.
How Persepolis Was Constructed
You may assume from these impressive structures that the Persepolis laborers received the same treatment as those who built the Egyptian pyramids, but this is untrue! The Achaemenid Kings were extremely friendly to their employees, which was unheard of for any kings at the time.
They did not treat them like slaves. The walls of Persepolis and the tablets that the accountant used to keep track of the construction activity bear witness to this habit.
You'll be astonished to learn that they even make regular payments and have insurance (meat, bread, and bear), The families of the workers would have been protected and supported by the Empire in the event of any incident.
Women also had the freedom to work full- or part-time, and they were entitled to paid maternity leave. Can you locate all of these employment benefits right now? Even in contemporary industrialized nations?
But as the adage "nothing lasts forever" is unwritten, even magnificent Persepolis perished during history.
What became of it? Again, nobody is aware. The dominant view, however, is that Alexander the Great set Persepolis on fire. According to the evidence, the Hadish Palace is where the fire originates before spreading to other parts of the city.
The main enigma surrounding Persepolis is whether or not this was done on purpose.
What Persepolis Means
The city's original name in Greek was Persepolis. It simply means "the Persian city." This highlights its significance as the Achaemenid Empire's core.
It wasn't a metropolis in the conventional sense, and it didn't precisely have a large permanent population or produce a lot of stuff, but it was nevertheless a significant symbol of the might of the king of kings (the power of Darius I in particular).
Persepolis' age is how old?
The structures in Persepolis date back to than 2500 years. However, Persepolis might be regarded as the most notable historical monument from ancient times in Iran due to its greatness and glory.
Parts of Iran have been found to include the remains of Elamites and early governments in ancient Iran.
A number of renowned museums around the world keep examples of the artwork found at Persepolis because of its fame.
Despite being in Iran, Persepolis is a tremendous treasure for all people in the globe due to its outstanding historical potential and evidence of the oldest historical civilizations.
As a result, in 1979, Persepolis, Iran's second historical and cultural landmark, was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The ideal time to see Persepolis is
Due to the open layout of Persepolis and the intense sunshine, visiting during the hotter months of the year can be uncomfortable.
The optimum time to visit Persepolis is between the middle of April and the end of May. Persepolis is also beautiful in the early fall.
It is best to visit Persepolis early in the day or later in the day when the weather has cooled off if you want to see the historical monument.
Bring warm clothing with you because Persepolis and its surroundings can get very cold after sunset during the colder months of the year.
Because there is no direct sunshine on cloudy days, visiting Persepolis is also a great idea. It is preferable to carry a hat and sunglasses for convenience.
various areas of Persepolis
The Persepolis region is divided into several sections. In general, the south, southwest, and east sides of Persepolis' center flat area were where the city's buildings and palaces were constructed.
A stairway that leads to a larger area serves as the complex's entrance. We shall look at the many areas of the Persepolis area in this section.
1- The staircase
Two symmetrical, parallel rows of stairs make up the entry stairway.
At the summit, the stairs continue in a zigzag pattern to reach a large area of the palaces at a height of 12 meters.
The space between the stairs is asphalt. These steps have a manageable height and are simple to climb. Naturally, visiting the interior of the palaces was forbidden and was seen as disrespectful to the king.
However, this short stair design appears to have been constructed by someone riding a horse for ease of movement.
Along the stairs, there are a few little concave shelters with rectangular recesses within that are about 64 cm high. Of course, much of this shelter has been destroyed now.
Large stones that are stacked one on top of the other without mortar are also used as the stairway's building blocks. Each enormous chunk of stone has been carved into four or five steps, and many of them still exhibit corrosion and wear. The Gate of Nations is located at the bottom of the stairs.
2- Gate of All Nations
A modest palace known as the "Gate of Nations" is located 22 meters from the bottom of the entrance stairs, after the stairs leading in.
The arrival of representatives of other nations along this path and the admittance to other palaces served as the impetus for this register.
There is proof that this palace was constructed during Xerxes' rule. Although the palace may have been erected during the reign of Darius, it actually was built during the reign of Xerxes.
The Gate of the Nations is a palace with three entrances, lofty brick walls, and four imposing pillars.
The main hall is more than 600 square meters in size. The palace's columns are roughly 16 meters high and the roof is 18 meters high.
One of the best-preserved pillars from Persepolis is the Gate of the Nations' pillars.
These columns have bell-shaped lower portions with vertical grooves, and at the top of each column, a spherical stone is set on a cylinder with grooves.
The column flower on the round stone, which is covered in patterns, flowers, and leaves, has a head that resembles the torso of a cow.
3- The Treasury of Persepolis
East of the Persepolis Museum and south of the Hundred Pillars Palace is where you'll find the Persepolis Treasury.
The ruins of this substantial structure are isolated from the neighboring palaces by broad streets and are enclosed by high walls.
This structure, one of Persepolis's earliest constructions, was constructed under the rule of Darius the Achaemenid and served as an office building at first.
Small rooms for soldiers are located in the treasury building's western section, and a huge courtyard with views of the columned porches and various halls is located in the eastern section.
Three halls with four columns each, a room with two columns, and two sizable halls connected by a corridor make up the treasury's interior. All of the building's columns were made of wood and had several designs and drawings.
4- A flat or palace with 100 columns
The second-largest palace at Persepolis was known as "Takht Hall" or "Palace of One Hundred Pillars." The central hall of this palace contains 100 columns, which gave it its name. Prior to the discovery of this palace, 100 columns in smaller sizes had already been discovered in the Persepolis Treasury, but because of this palace's splendor, it was given the name 100 Columns.
Persepolis was formerly referred as as "One Hundred Pillars" during the Sassanid era. This palace is situated in the Apadana Palace courtyard's eastern section.
Xerxes gave the order to start building the Hall of One Hundred Columns, but Ardashir I oversaw its completion. The cornerstone of the Throne Hall is inscribed with the dates of construction and the names of the kings.
5- Xerxes Shah or Hadish Palace
Another well-known palace at Persepolis is the "Hadish Palace," also known as Xerxes' palace.
According to the inscriptions on the walls, Xerxes ordered the construction of this palace.
The palace of Xerxes is situated south of the flat region of Persepolis, on the eastern side of "Palace H." Even though archaeologists place the palace's construction to Xerxes' reign, the decorations on the palace's walls indicate that work on the structure may have started during Darius the Achaemenid.
One of the palaces of Persepolis, the palace of Ardeshir I is located in the southwest of the throne and on the west side of Hadish palace.
It is also referred to as the palace or palace H. The painted staircases that look out onto the palace are currently in a sorry state.
According to the last remaining textual fragment, the main staircase is a part of a structure that was begun by Xerxes and finished by Ardashir I. A congress with the appearance of a bull's head and horns is present on the main building's west and south sides.
These congresses were discovered at the base of the throne and put there by Thalia, the Persepolis restorer, and his wife.
It is still uncertain how to understand these cowardly congresses and if they served as a haven or a symbol. Each of these meetings, big and small, was individually ornamented with themes like arrows and crosses.
7- Central palace or a palace with three doors
Due to its location in the heart of Persepolis, the Three-Door Palace has been referred to as the "Central Palace." Due to the presence of three entrances connecting this palace's hall to the surrounding palaces, the name Seh Dari was adopted.
Meetings with foreign visitors and court elders have taken place in the Central Palace's hall on both a formal and informal basis, and the image of the court elders has been carved on the palace's stairs.
This palace also goes by the names "Council Palace" and "Gate of Kings" for this reason.
This palace's primary structure is rectangular, and it has a square hall in the center.
Tall columns supported each of the hall's four corners. The Three-Door Palace has three entrances: the main one is on the east side, while the other two are on the south and north walls.
The main hall's western entrance provides access to the southern portions of Apadana Palace and Apadana Hall, while the eastern entrance leads from the narrow staircase to the southern corridor of the Hundred Pillars Palace.
The courtyard of Apadana Palace is also accessible from the north gate.
8- Bar Palace or Apadana
The "Apadana Palace," often referred to as the "Bar Palace," was one of Persepolis' most exquisite and spectacular structures.
It was constructed during the rule of Darius I and his successor Xerxes.
Nearly 30 years were spent on the building of this palace, which has been compared to Darius' palace in Susa. There are three porches in the north, east, and west of the main hall, which is rectangular and contains 36 columns. Of the 72 pillars of the Apadana Palace, only 14 still stand, one of which has been reconstructed.
Each porch also had 12 columns. There were four towers with guard rooms around the Apadana Hall on its four sides.
The Apadana Palace's main hall is perched on a mountain slope three meters above the Apadana courtyard and the Gate of the Nations.
The great hall is connected to the nearby palaces and courtyards by the east staircase related to the east porch and the north staircase attached to the north porch. The walls of the stairs are ornamented with priceless inscriptions and reliefs.
9- The private palace of Darius or Thatcher
Thatcher Palace is the name of the palace built by Darius I of the Achaemenid dynasty. One of Persepolis's first structures was this palace.
Thatcher Palace, also referred to as the Winter Palace, is situated southwest of Apadana Palace and faces south and the sun.
On the other hand, this palace is also known as "Mirror House" and "Mirror Hall" due to its elegant architectural design and the well-polished stonework used in its construction.
The height of Thatcher Palace is two to three meters higher than the nearby structures and courtyards, and the rectangular hall's width runs from north to south. Thatcher Palace's small rooms to the north of the central hall, which had 12 columns, each had four columns.
Eight columns supported the south porch that looked over it; they were all made of wood, but today there are no signs of them. The connection between the north rooms and the south porch was made by two flights of stairs on either side of the hall.
10- royal graves
The ruins of a mansion with signs of a stone tomb can be seen northeast of Chah Sangi, close to the Palace of the Hundred Pillars.
This porch structure's stones were laid atop one another without the use of mortar, and the entire structure was constructed on a platform. The carved tomb is visible to the east of this structure and appears to have been taken from the tombs of Naghsh-e Rostam.
The lower arm of the cross, however, has been left unfinished.
The Achaemenid kings and people believed that the human body should not enter the three pure and holy elements of earth, water, and fire after death. As a result, they discovered alternative methods for burying their dead. Alternatives to burying or cremating the dead included Zoroastrian tombs, stone tombs, masters, and sizable stone coffins that once held mummified corpses.
11- The Museum of Persepolis
The Queen's Palace from the complex of Persepolis palaces was rebuilt, changing its use and giving rise to the Persepolis Museum, the Museum of Iran's oldest structure. Professor Hertzfeld, who oversaw the excavations at Persepolis, assisted in the construction of this museum, also known as the Achaemenid Museum, which got underway in 1311.
Tourists are drawn in by the red mortar used in the Persepolis Museum's interior decoration.
This color was chosen symbolically in light of the building's age and the extensive Achaemenid influence on Persepolis' interior decorations.
Xerxes issued an order for the construction of the queen's palace during his rule.
The structure consists of a main hall and numerous rooms, many of which have drawings of Xerxes and his entourage as well as lions and monsters on their doors.
The main hall's roof is supported by twelve wooden pillars, and cow statues with two heads can be found on each pillar.
In order to visit Persepolis, you must first travel to Shiraz. If you choose not to use public transportation, the best form of transportation is a private car, which you can rent by going to the https://cafeerent.com/tourism website. Enjoy your trip!